"""
.. _user_defined_sampler:
User-Defined Sampler
====================
Thanks to user-defined samplers, you can:
- experiment your own sampling algorithms,
- implement task-specific algorithms to refine the optimization performance, or
- wrap other optimization libraries to integrate them into Optuna pipelines (e.g., :class:`~optuna.integration.BoTorchSampler`).
This section describes the internal behavior of sampler classes and shows an example of implementing a user-defined sampler.
Overview of Sampler
-------------------
A sampler has the responsibility to determine the parameter values to be evaluated in a trial.
When a `suggest` API (e.g., :func:`~optuna.trial.Trial.suggest_float`) is called inside an objective function, the corresponding distribution object (e.g., :class:`~optuna.distributions.FloatDistribution`) is created internally. A sampler samples a parameter value from the distribution. The sampled value is returned to the caller of the `suggest` API and evaluated in the objective function.
To create a new sampler, you need to define a class that inherits :class:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler`.
The base class has three abstract methods;
:meth:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler.infer_relative_search_space`,
:meth:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler.sample_relative`, and
:meth:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler.sample_independent`.
As the method names imply, Optuna supports two types of sampling: one is **relative sampling** that can consider the correlation of the parameters in a trial, and the other is **independent sampling** that samples each parameter independently.
At the beginning of a trial, :meth:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler.infer_relative_search_space` is called to provide the relative search space for the trial. Then, :meth:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler.sample_relative` is invoked to sample relative parameters from the search space. During the execution of the objective function, :meth:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler.sample_independent` is used to sample parameters that don't belong to the relative search space.
.. note::
Please refer to the document of :class:`~optuna.samplers.BaseSampler` for further details.
An Example: Implementing SimulatedAnnealingSampler
--------------------------------------------------
For example, the following code defines a sampler based on
`Simulated Annealing (SA) `_:
"""
import numpy as np
import optuna
class SimulatedAnnealingSampler(optuna.samplers.BaseSampler):
def __init__(self, temperature=100):
self._rng = np.random.RandomState()
self._temperature = temperature # Current temperature.
self._current_trial = None # Current state.
def sample_relative(self, study, trial, search_space):
if search_space == {}:
return {}
# Simulated Annealing algorithm.
# 1. Calculate transition probability.
prev_trial = study.trials[-2]
if self._current_trial is None or prev_trial.value <= self._current_trial.value:
probability = 1.0
else:
probability = np.exp(
(self._current_trial.value - prev_trial.value) / self._temperature
)
self._temperature *= 0.9 # Decrease temperature.
# 2. Transit the current state if the previous result is accepted.
if self._rng.uniform(0, 1) < probability:
self._current_trial = prev_trial
# 3. Sample parameters from the neighborhood of the current point.
# The sampled parameters will be used during the next execution of
# the objective function passed to the study.
params = {}
for param_name, param_distribution in search_space.items():
if (
not isinstance(param_distribution, optuna.distributions.FloatDistribution)
or (param_distribution.step is not None and param_distribution.step != 1)
or param_distribution.log
):
msg = (
"Only suggest_float() with `step` `None` or 1.0 and"
" `log` `False` is supported"
)
raise NotImplementedError(msg)
current_value = self._current_trial.params[param_name]
width = (param_distribution.high - param_distribution.low) * 0.1
neighbor_low = max(current_value - width, param_distribution.low)
neighbor_high = min(current_value + width, param_distribution.high)
params[param_name] = self._rng.uniform(neighbor_low, neighbor_high)
return params
# The rest are unrelated to SA algorithm: boilerplate
def infer_relative_search_space(self, study, trial):
return optuna.search_space.intersection_search_space(study.get_trials(deepcopy=False))
def sample_independent(self, study, trial, param_name, param_distribution):
independent_sampler = optuna.samplers.RandomSampler()
return independent_sampler.sample_independent(study, trial, param_name, param_distribution)
###################################################################################################
# .. note::
# In favor of code simplicity, the above implementation doesn't support some features (e.g., maximization).
# If you're interested in how to support those features, please see
# `examples/samplers/simulated_annealing.py
# `_.
#
#
# You can use ``SimulatedAnnealingSampler`` in the same way as built-in samplers as follows:
def objective(trial):
x = trial.suggest_float("x", -10, 10)
y = trial.suggest_float("y", -5, 5)
return x**2 + y
sampler = SimulatedAnnealingSampler()
study = optuna.create_study(sampler=sampler)
study.optimize(objective, n_trials=100)
best_trial = study.best_trial
print("Best value: ", best_trial.value)
print("Parameters that achieve the best value: ", best_trial.params)
###################################################################################################
# In this optimization, the values of ``x`` and ``y`` parameters are sampled by using
# ``SimulatedAnnealingSampler.sample_relative`` method.
#
# .. note::
# Strictly speaking, in the first trial,
# ``SimulatedAnnealingSampler.sample_independent`` method is used to sample parameter values.
# Because :func:`~optuna.search_space.intersection_search_space` used in
# ``SimulatedAnnealingSampler.infer_relative_search_space`` cannot infer the search space
# if there are no complete trials.